lunes, 20 de junio de 2016

The Claddagh Ring

The history of the claddagh ring dates back to the early 16th century, and to the village of Claddagh,
Co. Galway, Ireland.

Legend tells us that a small fishing boat from the village was captured by pirates and the crew taken as slaves. One of the crew, a man named Richard Joyce was to have married the same week of the capture, and his bride-to be was inconsolable.

As the years went by neither married Richard Joyce was put to work at the trade of Goldsmithing, never forgetting his girl back home. He made a ring for her, with a heart for love, a crown for loyalty and two hands for friendship.

Eventually, after eight years he escaped his captors and returned to Ireland, to the village, and to his great joy he found she had never given up hope of seeing him again their love was as a strong as ever. He gave her the ring ha had made for her. They married shortly afterwards, never to be separated again.

Worn on the right hand, crown turned inwards, your heart is yet unoccupied.
Worn on the right hand, crown turned outwards, shows a special commitment to someone.
Worn on the left hand, crown outwards - let our love and friendship reign forever, never to be separated.


domingo, 19 de junio de 2016

Make versus Do

Make often refers to creative or productive processes, while Do often refers to the performance of a service or work.

Do your best                                                    Hacer lo mejor que puedas
Do business with someone                              Hacer negocios con alguien
Do your duty                                                   Cumple tu deber
Do someone a favour                                      Hacer a alguien un favor
Do harm to someone                                       Dañar a alguien
Do damage                                                      Hacer daño
Do someone a good turn                                 Prestarle a alguien un buen servicio
Do the washing-up                                          Hacer la fregada, fregar los platos
Do the shopping                                              Hacer la compra, comprar
Do wrong or right                                           Hacerlo mal o hacer lo correcto
Do your own thing                                          Hacer tus cosas
Do away with                                                  (alguien) suicidarse/(algo) salirse, eliminar
Do out of                                                         Estafar
Do without                                                      Arreglarselas sin
Do with one's                                                  Estar conectado o relacionado con alguien
Do justice to someone                                     Hacer justicia a alguien
Do the cleaning                                               Hacer la limpieza
Do the housework                                           Hacer las cosas de la casa
Do your homework                                         Hacer tus deberes (del colegio)

Make progress                                                  Hacer un progreso, progresar                      
Make room                                                       Hacer sitio, correrse                  
Make an agreement with someone                   Llegar a un acuerdo con alguien
Make an appointment                                       Arreglar una cita (no amorosa), citarse con alguien
Make trouble                                                    Dar problema. meterse en problemas
Make an attempt                                               Hacer un intento
Make certain about something                         Tener la certeza de algo, cerciorarse de algo
Make sure                                                         Tener seguro, asegurarse
Make a comment about something                   Hacer un comentario sobre algo, comentar algo
Make a bed                                                        Hacer la cama
Make an excuse                                                 Tener una excusa, excusarse
Make a good impression                                   Dar/mostrar (una) buena impresión
Make friends with someone                              Trabajar para convertirse en amigo de alguien
Make a lot of money                                         Hacer mucho dinero,enriquecerse
Make a suggestion                                             Hacer una sugerencia, sugerir
Make love                                                          Hacer el amor
Make war                                                           Guerrear
Make a mistake                                                  Hacer un error, Cometer un error, meter la pata
Make a noise                                                      Hacer ruido
Make a profit or loss                                          Tener un provecho/beneficio o una pérdida
Make plans                                                         Hacer planes, planear
Make a reservation                                             Hacer una reserva, reservar
Make a scene                                                     Montar una escena
Make for                                                            Conducir hacia/Contribuir a, conducir a
Make off/off with                                              Escapar, huir/Robar, escapar con
Make up/up for lost time                                   Crear/Recuperar el tiempo perdido
Make out                                                            Liarse (relación)
Making a mountain out of a molehill                Hacer una montaña de un grano de arena
Make it up to someone                                      Compensar
Make up                                                             Maquillarse

Appear, Look & Seem

1. Give the impression of being.   
            They do not appear to be at home.
2. It can also mean 'arrive' but in this case can be modified by an adverb.  
             She suddenly appeared in the doorway.  
Have the appearance or give the impression of being. 
            He looks like his mother.
            He looks tired.

Give the impression of being something or having a particular quality.
          It seems like Bill is falling in love with Smantha.
seems like -- indicates a possibillity of something

         It seems that Bill is falling in love with Smantha.

seem that --- indicates a more factual situation  

Description of a person

A description of a person is not his/her biography. You inform, as a writer, to the reader who is that person, not he/she was.

Make up a list of facts (age, height, colour of the hair and the eyes, ...).
  1. Think about adjectives that describes that person.
  2. Write 3 parragaphs:
  •     Describe his/her appearence. Use Present Simple. Use modifiers.
  •     Describe her/his personality. How to describe the personality of a person with her/his physical features?. Use frequency adverbs.
  •     What do you and others think about this person? Possitive/Negative. Conclusion.
Writing task
Describe a friend. What are his/her good and bad points?

Useful expressions
Modifiers Adverbs
really = fairly =quite = a bit = not vey

Frequency Adverbs 
always = usually = often = occasionally = sometimes = never

Possibility Adverbs
definitely = probably = maybe

Physical Appearance Adjectives
beautiful = blond = broad-souldered = dark = fair = good-looking = pale = pretty = short = slim = tall

Personality Adjectives
absent-minded = ambitious = broad-minded = cautious = chatty = cheerful = cold-hearted = easy-going = (un)faithful = friedly = honest = interesting =  moody = narrow-minded = patient = quick-tempered = romantic = self-centred = sensible = senstive = sociable = thoughtful = warm-hearted

My best friend's name is Steve. He's seventeen but he looks younger. He's got fairly pale skin and short black hair which is often quite messy. He's about the same height as me, 182 cm, and he's slim.


Nursery Rhymes and Songs

One for sorrow

“One for Sorrow” Lyrics

Modern version

One for sorrow,
Two for joy,
Three for a girl,
Four for a boy,
Five for silver,
Six for gold,
Seven for a secret,
Never to be told,
Eight for a wish,
Nine for a kiss
Ten for a bird
You must not miss.

“One for Sorrow” Original lyrics

One for sorrow,
Two for mirth,
Three for a wedding,
And four for death

"The Duke of York"
Oh, the grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men,
He marched them up to the top of
Everyone stands up
The hill and he marched
Them down again.  
Everyone sits down

And when they were up they were up.
Everyone stands up
And when they were down they were down.
Everyone sits down
And when they were only half way up,
They were neither up nor down.
Everyone half-way up

Hey, diddle, diddle,
The cat and the fiddle,
The cow jumped over the moon;
The little dog laughed
To see such sport,
And the dish ran away with the spoon. 

 "Hickory, dickory, dock," 

Hickory, dickory, dock, 

The mouse ran up the clock; 

The clock struck one, 

And down he run,

Hickory, dickory, dock.

"Hot-cross buns!"
Hot-cross buns!
Hot-cross buns!
One a penny, two a penny,
Hot-cross buns!
If you have no daughters,
Give them to your sons;
One a penny, two a penny,
Hot-cross buns!
 Source: The Dorling Kindersley Book of Nursery Rhymes (2000) 

"Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star"
  Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are!
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.

When the blazing sun is gone,
When he nothing shines upon,
Then you show your little light,
Twinkle, twinkle, all the night.

Then the traveler in the dark
Thanks you for your tiny spark,
How could he see where to go,
If you did not twinkle so?

In the dark blue sky you keep,
Often through my curtains peep
For you never shut your eye,
Till the sun is in the sky.

As your bright and tiny spark
Lights the traveler in the dark,
Though I know not what you are,
Twinkle, twinkle, little star.
Source: The Golden Book of Poetry (1947) 
    Jack and Jill
Went up the hill
To fetch a pail of water,
Jack fell down
And broke his crown
And Jill came tumbling after.
Up Jack got
And home did trot
As fast as he could caper,
Went to bed
To mend his head
With vinegar and brown paper.

  Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake baker's man
Bake me a cake as fast as you can
Prick it and pat it and mark it with a "b"
And put it in the oven for Billy and me

Make it with chocolate, make it with cream
Make it the prettiest you've ever seen
Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake baker's man
Bake me a cake as fast as you can

Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake baker's man
Bake me a cake as fast as you can
Mix it and stir it and bake it just right
Good from the first 'til the very last bite

Write his name wit lots of care
And make pretty flowers here and there
Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake baker's man
Bake me a cake as fast as you can
Prick it and price it and mark it with a "b"
And put it in the oven for Billy and me
And put it in the oven for Billy and me
And put it in the oven for Billy and me
Little Miss Muffet sat on a tuffet,
Eating her curds and whey.

There came a big spider,
Who  sat down beside her.
And frightened Miss Muffet  away!

Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall,
All the king's horses and all the king's men,
Couldn't put Humpty together again.

He fell of the wall - from the highest high - so high!
He had a great fall - from the highest high - high!
All the king's horses and all the king's men,
Couldn't put Humpty together again.

Humpty Dumpty sat on the ground,
Humpty Dumpty looked all around,
Gone were the chimneys and gone were the roofs,
All he could see was horses and hooves.

He fell of the wall - from the highest high - so high!
He had a great fall - from the highest high - high!
All the king's horses and all the king's men,
Couldn't put Humpty together again.

Nursery Songs

"Ride a cock horse to Banbury Cross"
Ride a cock horse to Banbury Cross,
To see a fi ne lady on a white horse,
With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes,
She shall have music wherever she goes.

Jingle! Jangle! Jingle!
Jingle! Jangle! Jingle!

Ride a cock horse to Banbury Cross,
To see a fine lady on a white horse,
With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes,
She shall have music wherever she goes.


Proverbs versus Idioms

A proverb (from Latin: proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience. They are often metaphorical. A proverb that describes a basic rule of conduct may also be known as a maxim. Proverbs fall into the category of formulaic language.
Proverbs are often borrowed from similar languages and cultures, and sometimes come down to the present through more than one language. Both the Bible (including, but not limited to the Book of Proverbs) and medieval Latin (aided by the work of Erasmus) have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs across Europe. Mieder has concluded that cultures that treat the Bible as their "major spiritual book contain between three hundred and five hundred proverbs that stem from the Bible."[1] However, almost every culture has examples of its own unique proverbs.



"As cold as ice"                                                                         Tan frío como el hielo 
"It's like watching dry"                                                             Algo que es muy aburrido
"Silence is golden"                                                                    El silencio es oro 
"(sb/sth) is a pain in the neck" (... es un dolor en el cuello)     Alguien que es molesto


An idiom (Latin: idioma, "special property", from Greek: ἰδίωμα – idíōma, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. Greek: ἴδιος – ídios, "one's own") is a phrase or a fixed expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning. An idiom's figurative meaning is different from the literal meaning.

Idiom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Better late than never.
Más vale tarde que nunca.

Do as I say, not as I do.
No sigas mi ejemplo.

Don't bite off more than you can chew.
Quien mucho aprieta, poco abarca. 

He let the cat out of the bag.
Se le escapó (un secreto).

Nothing lasts forever.
Nada dura para siempre.

She hit the nail on the head.
Ella dió en el clavo.

The early bird catches the worm.
A quien madruga, Dios le ayuda.

You can't have your cake and eat it too.
No se puede tener todo en la vida.

¿Cuándo libras?= When are you free?

De perdidos al rio=in for a penny, in for a pound

¡Está que no caga! = he's on cloud nine!

Estoy cachond@=I'm horny

Libro el lunes=I have Mondays off

No me tomes el pelo=Don't pull my leg

Pan comido=piece of cake

Por si las moscas=Just in case

¡Qué desastre!= What a mess!

Tírale de la lengua=Egg him on

From Shakespeare:
Dream on (Buckingham's Ghost, Richard III)
Sigue soñando (El fantasma de Buckingham en Ricardo III)

"Señor cuán insensatos son los humanos" Puck, en Sueño de una noche de verano.
Una verdad como Escorial de grande. Shakespeare diría "Very like a whale" = tanto como una ballena (Polonio en Hamlet)

Words are but wind (The Comedy of Errors)
Las palabras se las lleva el viento (La comedia de los errores)

¡Un caballo!, ¡un caballo!. ¡Mi reino por un caballo! (Ricardo III)
A horse! A horse! My kingdom for a horse! (Richard III)

Recommended books:
From Lost to the River, Federico López Socasau

Recommended videos:

Idioms of Like

        like ships that pass in the night

        like stink

        like the clappers 

        like the sound of something 

        like there is/was no tomorrow 

        like there’s no tomorrow

        like two peas in a pod

        like wildfire

Idioms of  Colours


to be in the red [account, firm] "estar en números rojos""   ⇒ I'm £100 in the red" "tengo un descubierto de 100 libras en el banco""   ⇒ to go into or get into the red" "contraer deudas""   ⇒ to get out of the red" "liquidar las deudas"

to see red "sulfurarse", "salirse de sus casillas""   ⇒ this makes me see red" "esto me saca de quicio"

it's like a red rag to a bull "es lo que más le saca de quicio"

to roll out the red carpet for sb "recibir a algn por todo lo alto or a bombo y platillo""   ⇒ to give sb the red carpet treatment" "tratar a algn a cuerpo de rey"

not a red cent (US, informal) "ni una gorda (inf)"

to go or turn as red as a beetroot "ponerse como un tomate"

reds under the bed (informal) "la amenaza comunista"

poner rojo a algn "to make sb blush"

ponerse rojo "to turn red", "blush"

ponerse rojo de ira "to go purple with rage"


once in a blue moon "de Pascuas a Ramos"

you can shout till you're blue in the face (informal) "puedes gritar hasta hartarte"

to go like a blue streak (US, informal) "ir como un rayo"

to talk like a blue streak (US, informal) "hablar muy deprisa"

to come out of the blue [money, good news] "venir como cosa llovida del cielo", "bajar del cielo" [bad news] "caer como una bomba""   ⇒ he said out of the blue" "dijo de repente", "dijo inesperadamente"

blue film=película verde

to be out of the blue=estar en la Inopia


to swear black and blue "jurar por todo lo más santo" ("that" "que")

in black and white"   ⇒ I should like it in black and white" "quisiera tenerlo por escrito""   ⇒ there it is in black and white!" "¡ahí lo tiene en letras de molde!"

más negro que el azabache "jet-black"

negro como boca de lobo, negro como un pozo "pitch-black", "pitch-dark"

pasarlas negras "to have a tough time of it"

verse negro "to be in a jam (inf)""   ⇒ verse negro para hacer algo" "to have one's work cut out to do sth""   ⇒ nos vimos negros para salir del apuro" "we had a tough time getting out of it"

vérselas negras "to find o.s. in trouble"

trabajar como un negro "to work like a dog", "slave away (inf)"


whiter than white [person, way of life] "sin tacha", "angelical""   ⇒ "Bleacho" washes whiter than white" ""Bleacho" deja la colada blanca como la nieve""   ⇒ he went white at the age of 30" "el pelo se le puso blanco a los 30 años", "encaneció a los 30 años""   ⇒ she was white with rage" "estaba pálida de la rabia"

to show the white feather "mostrarse cobarde"

to be as white as a sheet or ghost "estar pálido como la muerte"

blanco como la nieve "as white as snow"

blanco como la cera o como el papel o como la pared "as white as a sheet"

decir que lo blanco es negro "to swear that black is white"

no distinguir lo blanco de lo negro "to be unable to tell right from wrong"

poner los ojos en blanco "to roll one's eyes"

verlo todo blanco o negro "to see everything in black and white"

pasar la noche en blanco "not to sleep a wink (inf)", "have a sleepless night"

quedarse en blanco"   ⇒ el concursante se quedó en blanco" "the contestant's mind went blank""   ⇒ no pude contestar porque se me quedó la mente en blanco" "I couldn't answer because my mind went blank"


to be green with envy "morirse de envidia""   ⇒ to make sb green with envy" "ponerle a algn los dientes largos"

the green shoots of recovery "los primeros indicios de la recuperación"

he's as green as grass "es más inocente que un niño"

estar verde de envidia "to be green with envy"

poner verde a algn (informal) "to run sb down (inf)", "slag sb off (v. inf)""   ⇒ siempre ponen verde al jefe" "they're always running down (inf) o slagging off (v. inf) the boss""   ⇒ me llamó y me puso verde por no haberla ayudado" "she called me and gave me a piece of her mind for not helping her (inf)"


to be in the pink (= healthy) "rebosar salud" (= happy) "estar feliz y contento"

to be in the pink of condition "estar en perfecto estado"

como una rosa"   ⇒ estar como una rosa" "to feel as fresh as a daisy""   ⇒ un cutis como una rosa" "a skin as soft as silk""   ⇒ estar como las propias rosas" "to feel entirely at ease""   ⇒ florecer como rosa en mayo" "to bloom", "flourish"

no hay rosa sin espinas "there's no rose without a thorn"


pasarlas moradas "to have a tough time of it"

ponerse morado (de algo) (informal) "to stuff one's face (with sth) (inf)"


as brown as a berry "muy moreno", "bronceadísimo"

comerse un marrón "to own up"


como una plata "bright as a pin"

hablar en plata "to speak bluntly", "speak frankly"


dorar la píldora "to sweeten the pill"


¡naranjas!, ¡naranjas de la China! "no way! (inf)", "nothing doing! (inf)"""

                                                                                                                  Collins Spanish Dictionary